Introduction ::NetherlandsBackground:The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, but suffered invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU) and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999. In October 2010, the former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and the three smallest islands - Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba - became special municipalities in the Netherlands administrative structure. The larger islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao joined the Netherlands and Aruba as constituent countries forming the Kingdom of the Netherlands.Geography ::NetherlandsLocation:Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and GermanyGeographic coordinates:52 30 N, 5 45 EArea:total: 41,543 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 135land: 33,893 sq kmwater: 7,650 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly less than twice the size of New JerseyLand boundaries:total: 1,027 kmborder countries: Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 kmCoastline:451 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive fishing zone: 200 nmClimate:temperate; marine; cool summers and mild wintersTerrain:mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeastElevation extremes:lowest point: Zuidplaspolder -7 mhighest point: Mount Scenery 862 m (on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, now considered an integral part of the Netherlands following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)note: the highest point on continental Netherlands is Vaalserberg at 322 mNatural resources:natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable landLand use:arable land: 25.08%permanent crops: 0.88%other: 74.04% (2011)Irrigated land:4,572 sq km (2007)Total renewable water resources:91 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 10.61 cu km/yr (12%/88%/1%)per capita: 636.7 cu m/yr (2008)Natural hazards:floodingEnvironment - current issues:water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rainEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)People and Society ::NetherlandsNationality:noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)adjective: DutchEthnic groups:Dutch 80.7%, EU 5%, Indonesian 2.4%, Turkish 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccan 2%, Caribbean 0.8%, other 4.8% (2008 est.)Languages:Dutch (official), Frisian (official)Religions:Roman Catholic 30%, Protestant 20% (Dutch Reformed 11%, Calvinist 6%, other Protestant 3%), Muslim 5.8%, other 2.2%, none 42% (2006)Population:16,805,037 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 64Age structure:0-14 years: 17.1% (male 1,468,364/female 1,401,651)15-24 years: 12.2% (male 1,041,181/female 1,002,125)25-54 years: 40.8% (male 3,436,713/female 3,411,374)55-64 years: 12.9% (male 1,083,095/female 1,085,929)65 years and over: 17.1% (male 1,284,788/female 1,589,817) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 51.7 %youth dependency ratio: 25.9 %elderly dependency ratio: 25.8 %potential support ratio: 3.9 (2013)Median age:total: 41.8 yearsmale: 41 yearsfemale: 42.6 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:0.44% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 156Birth rate:10.85 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 177Death rate:8.48 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 83Net migration rate:1.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 41Urbanization:urban population: 83% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 0.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:AMSTERDAM (capital) 1.044 million; Rotterdam 1.008 million; The Hague (seat of government) 629,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:28.9 (2005 est.)Maternal mortality rate:6 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 172Infant mortality rate:total: 3.69 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 205male: 3.99 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 81.01 yearscountry comparison to the world: 21male: 78.93 yearsfemale: 83.21 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.78 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 154Contraceptive prevalence rate:69%note: percent of women aged 18-45 (2008)Health expenditures:11.9% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 7Physicians density:3.92 physicians/1,000 population (2007)Hospital bed density:4.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.2% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 97HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:22,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 74HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 100 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 130Obesity - adult prevalence rate:18.8% (2008)country comparison to the world: 103Education expenditures:5.9% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 42Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 99%male: 99%female: 99% (2003 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 17 yearsmale: 17 yearsfemale: 17 years (2010)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 7.7%country comparison to the world: 122male: 7.5%female: 7.8% (2011)Government ::NetherlandsCountry name:conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlandsconventional short form: Netherlandslocal long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlandenlocal short form: NederlandGovernment type:constitutional monarchyCapital:name: Amsterdamgeographic coordinates: 52 21 N, 4 55 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in Octobernote: The Hague is the seat of government; time descriptions apply to the continental Netherlands only, not to the Caribbean componentsAdministrative divisions:12 provinces (provincies, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Fryslan (Friesland), Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant (North Brabant), Noord-Holland (North Holland), Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (Zealand), Zuid-Holland (South Holland)Dependent areas:Aruba, Curacao, Sint MaartenIndependence:23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence)National holiday:Queen's Day (Birthday of deceased Queen-Mother JULIANA and accession to the throne of her oldest daughter BEATRIX), 30 April (1909 and 1980)Constitution:adopted 1815; amended many timesLegal system:civil law system based on the French system; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States GeneralInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013)head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010); Deputy Prime Minister Lodewijk ASSCHER (since 5 November 2012); note - Mark RUTTE tendered his resignation 23 April 2012; new elections were held on 12 September 2012 in which his party won the most seats; during the interim period he remained in office in a care-taking position; he was sworn in again to be prime minister on 5 November 2012cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarchnote: there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides consultations to the cabinet on legislative and administrative policyLegislative branch:bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils to serve four-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve at most four-year terms)elections: First Chamber - last held on May 2011 (next to be held in May 2015); Second Chamber - last held on 12 September 2012 (next to be held by September 2016)election results: First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VVD 16, PvdA 14, CDA 11, PVV 10, SP 8, D66 5, GL 5, other 6; Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - VVD 26.6%, PvdA 24.8%, PVV, 10.1%, SP 9.7%, CDA 8.5%, D66 8.0%, CU 3.1%, GL 6.7%, other 2.5%; seats by party - VVD 41, PvdA 38, PVV 15, SP 15, CDA 13, D66 12, CU 5, GL 4, other 7Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (consists of 41 judges: the president, 6 vice-presidents, 31 justices or raadsheren, and 3 justices in exceptional service, referred to as buitengewone dienst); the court is divided into criminal, civil, tax, and ombuds chambersjudge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch from a list provided by the Second Chamber of the States General; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement at age 70subordinate courts: courts of appeal; district courts, each with up to 5 subdistrict courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Sybrand VAN HAERSMA BUMA]Christian Union or CU [Arie SLOB]Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]Green Left or GL [Bram VAN OJIK]Labor Party or PvdA [Diederik SAMSOM]Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]People's Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD [Halbe ZIJLSTRA]Reformed Political Party of SGP [Kees VAN DER STAAIJ]Socialist Party of SP [Emile ROEMER]plus a few minor partiesPolitical pressure groups and leaders:Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Jaap SMIT]Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES]Federation for Small and Medium-sized businesses or MKB [Hans BIESHEUVEL]Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Ton HEERTS]Social Economic Council or SER [Wiebe DRAIJER]Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Reginald VISSER]International organization participation:ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCDiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Rudolf Simon BEKINKchancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 244-5300,  877-388-2443FAX:  (202) 362-3430consulate(s) general: Chicago, Miami, New York, San Franciscoconsulate(s): BostonDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Edwin NOLANembassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ, The Haguemailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715telephone:  (70) 310-2209FAX:  (70) 310-2207consulate(s) general: AmsterdamFlag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer; the colors were those of WILLIAM I, Prince of Orange, who led the Dutch Revolt against Spanish sovereignty in the latter half of the 16th century; originally the upper band was orange, but because it tended to fade to red over time, the red shade was eventually made the permanent color; the banner is perhaps the oldest tricolor in continuous useNational symbol(s):lionNational anthem:name: ""Het Wilhelmus"" (The William)lyrics/music: Philips VAN MARNIX van Sint Aldegonde (presumed)/unknownnote: adopted 1932, in use since the 17th century, making it the oldest national anthem in the world; also known as ""Wilhelmus van Nassouwe"" (William of Nassau), it is in the form of an acrostic, where the first letter of each stanza spells the name of the leader of the Dutch RevoltEconomy ::NetherlandsEconomy - overview:The Dutch economy is the sixth-largest economy in the euro-zone and is noted for its stable industrial relations, moderate unemployment and inflation, a sizable trade surplus, and an important role as a European transportation hub. Industrial activity is predominantly in food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 2% of the labor force but provides large surpluses for the food-processing industry and for exports. The Netherlands, along with 11 of its EU partners, began circulating the euro currency on 1 January 2002. After 26 years of uninterrupted economic growth, the Dutch economy - highly dependent on an international financial sector and international trade - contracted by 3.5% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis. The Dutch financial sector suffered, due in part to the high exposure of some Dutch banks to U.S. mortgage-backed securities. In 2008, the government nationalized two banks and injected billions of dollars of capital into other financial institutions, to prevent further deterioration of a crucial sector. The government also sought to boost the domestic economy by accelerating infrastructure programs, offering corporate tax breaks for employers to retain workers, and expanding export credit facilities. The stimulus programs and bank bailouts, however, resulted in a government budget deficit of 5.3% of GDP in 2010 that contrasted sharply with a surplus of 0.7% in 2008. The government of Prime Minister Mark RUTTE began implementing fiscal consolidation measures in early 2011, mainly reductions in expenditures, which resulted in an improved budget deficit in 2011. In 2012 tax revenues dropped nearly 9%, GDP contracted, and the budget deficit deteriorated. Although jobless claims continued to grow, the unemployment rate remained relatively low at 6.8 percent.GDP (purchasing power parity):$718.6 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 24$725 billion (2011 est.)$717.9 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$773.1 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:-0.9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1981% (2011 est.)1.6% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$42,900 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 23$43,400 (2011 est.)$43,200 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:27.2% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 3428.2% of GDP (2011 est.)25.8% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 45.5%government consumption: 28.4%investment in fixed capital: 16.8%investment in inventories: 0.4%exports of goods and services: 87.3%imports of goods and services: -78.5%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 2.8%industry: 24%services: 73.2% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestockIndustries:agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishingIndustrial production growth rate:-0.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 138Labor force:7.895 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 62Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 2%industry: 18%services: 80% (2005 est.)Unemployment rate:5.3% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 495.8% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:10.5% (2005)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.5%highest 10%: 22.9% (1999)Distribution of family income - Gini index:30.9 (2007)country comparison to the world: 11132.6 (1994)Budget:revenues: $357.9 billionexpenditures: $388.8 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:46.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 20Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 141Public debt:71.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 3865.4% of GDP (2011 est.)note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctionsFiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):2.8% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 852.5% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:1.5% (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 1261.75% (31 December 2010)note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro areaCommercial bank prime lending rate:2.65% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1753.19% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$389.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15$369 billion (31 December 2011 est.)note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own bordersStock of broad money:$1.119 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 18$1.088 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$1.698 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 13$1.646 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$594.7 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 19$661.2 billion (31 December 2010)$542.5 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:$77.2 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 6$70.92 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$538.5 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 8$549.8 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffsExports - partners:Germany 26.3%, Belgium 14.1%, France 8.8%, UK 8%, Italy 4.5% (2012)Imports:$474.8 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12$484.6 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothingImports - partners:Germany 13.9%, China 12%, Belgium 8.4%, UK 6.7%, Russia 6.4%, US 6.1% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$54.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 33$51.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$2.487 trillion (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 9$2.482 trillion (31 December 2011)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$558.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 13$629.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$950.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 10$1.053 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:euros (EUR) per US dollar -0.7778 (2012 est.)0.7185 (2011 est.)0.755 (2010 est.)0.7198 (2009 est.)0.6827 (2008 est.)Energy ::NetherlandsElectricity - production:108 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 33Electricity - consumption:107.4 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 30Electricity - exports:12.81 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 14Electricity - imports:15.58 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 11Electricity - installed generating capacity:25.99 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 30Electricity - from fossil fuels:84.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 88Electricity - from nuclear fuels:2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 29Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 149Electricity - from other renewable sources:13.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 12Crude oil - production:41,990 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 63Crude oil - exports:13,140 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Crude oil - imports:964,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 10Crude oil - proved reserves:287.4 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Refined petroleum products - production:1.239 million bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Refined petroleum products - consumption:1.01 million bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 21Refined petroleum products - exports:1.858 million bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 4Refined petroleum products - imports:1.61 million bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 2Natural gas - production:81.09 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 12Natural gas - consumption:49.05 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 16Natural gas - exports:54.8 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 7Natural gas - imports:22.76 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 15Natural gas - proved reserves:1.303 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 23Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:263.4 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 24Communications ::NetherlandsTelephones - main lines in use:7.135 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 25Telephones - mobile cellular:19.835 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 48Telephone system:general assessment: highly developed and well maintaineddomestic: extensive fixed-line fiber-optic network; large cellular telephone system with 5 major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) servicesinternational: country code - 31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 (3 Intelsat - 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (2011)Broadcast media:more than 90% of households are connected to cable or satellite TV systems that provide a wide range of domestic and foreign channels; public service broadcast system includes multiple broadcasters, 3 with a national reach and the remainder operating in regional and local markets; 2 major nationwide commercial television companies, each with 3 or more stations, and many commercial TV stations in regional and local markets; nearly 600 radio stations with a mix of public and private stations providing national or regional coverage (2008)Internet country code:.nlInternet hosts:13.699 million (2012)country comparison to the world: 11Internet users:14.872 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 27Transportation ::NetherlandsAirports:29 (2013)country comparison to the world: 120Airports - with paved runways:total: 23over 3,047 m: 32,438 to 3,047 m: 111,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 6under 914 m: 2 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 6914 to 1,523 m: 4under 914 m:2 (2013)Heliports:1 (2013)Pipelines:condensate 81 km; gas 8,531 km; oil 578 km; refined products 716 km (2013)Railways:total: 2,896 kmcountry comparison to the world: 58standard gauge: 2,896 km 1.435-m gauge (2,195 km electrified) (2009)Roadways:total: 136,827 km (includes 2,631 km of expressways) (2008)country comparison to the world: 36Waterways:6,214 km (navigable for ships of 50 tons) (2009)country comparison to the world: 22Merchant marine:total: 744country comparison to the world: 15by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 514, carrier 15, chemical tanker 56, container 67, liquefied gas 21, passenger 17, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 19, specialized tanker 3foreign-owned: 196 (Australia 1, Bermuda 1, Denmark 27, Finland 13, France 2, Germany 86, Ireland 8, Italy 6, Japan 1, Norway 19, Sweden 12, UAE 4, US 16)registered in other countries: 233 (Antigua and Barbuda 17, Bahamas 23, Belize 1, Canada 1, Curacao 43, Cyprus 23, Germany 1, Gibraltar 34, Italy 2, Liberia 31, Luxembourg 3, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 21, Panama 6, Paraguay 1, Philippines 17, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 1, UK 1, unknown 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:major ports: Amsterdam, IJmuiden, Moerdijk, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Vlissingencontainer ports: Rotterdam (11,876,920)Military ::NetherlandsMilitary branches:Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force (Koninklijke Luchtmacht, KLu), Royal Military Police (2012)Military service age and obligation:17 years of age for an all-volunteer force (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 3,911,098females age 16-49: 3,817,031 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 3,201,328females age 16-49: 3,122,889 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 103,462female: 98,383 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:1.6% of GDP (2005 est.)country comparison to the world: 92Transnational Issues ::NetherlandsDisputes - international:noneRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 18,255 (Iraq); 15,715 (Somalia); 5,697 (Afghanistan) (2012)stateless persons: 2,005 (2012)Illicit drugs:major European producer of synthetic drugs, including ecstasy, and cannabis cultivator; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; major source of US-bound ecstasy; large financial sector vulnerable to money laundering; significant consumer of ecstasy"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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Netherlands — Netherlands, Low Countries, Holland, Dutch The Netherlands is the official name for the Kingdom of Holland; Holland (strictly only a part of the Netherlands) is used informally. The term Low Countries includes Belgium and Luxembourg as well as… … Modern English usage
Netherlands — [neth′ər ləndz] 1. country in W Europe, on the North Sea: 16,033 sq mi (41,526 sq km); pop. 15,340,000; cap. Amsterdam; seat of government, The Hague: usually used with the 2. kingdom consisting of the independent states of the Netherlands &… … English World dictionary
Netherlands — from Du. Nederland, lit. lower land (see NETHER (Cf. nether)); said to have been used by the Austrians (who ruled much of the southern part of the Low Countries from 1713 to 1795), by way of contrast to the mountains they knew, but the name is… … Etymology dictionary
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Netherlands — At the time of the German occupation of the Netherlands in May 1940, there were 140,000 Jews who represented about 1.6 percent of the population. The Jews of the Netherlands, many of whom were working class, were among the poorest of western… … Historical dictionary of the Holocaust
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Netherlands — 1. noun /ˈnɛ.ðə.ləndz,ˈnɛ.ðɚ.ləndz/ A country in northwestern Europe bordering Germany and Belgium. Official name: Kingdom of the Netherlands. Syn: Holland 2. adjective /ˈnɛ.ðə.ləndz,ˈnɛ.ðɚ.ləndz/ Of or pertaining to t … Wiktionary
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